Anal cancer is a kind of cancer in which malignant cells are formed within the tissue of the anus. Differing types of tumors are developed within the anus and might cause rectal bleeding and anal pain symptoms.
Here we will discuss early warning signs and symptoms of anal cancer, how it can be treated and diagnosed, and many more things.
What is Anal Cancer?
Anal Cancer is formed due to a change in the cells that grow out of control. The changed (abnormal) cells often grow to make a lump or mass called a tumor.
Cancer cells also can grow into (invade) nearby areas, and they can spread to other parts of the body. This can be called metastasis.
Anal Tumor Types
Different types of tumors can be formed within the anus. A number of these tumors don’t seem to be cancer. These tumors can include:
1. Benign or Non cancerous Anal Tumors
Polyps are small growths that will be flat or bumpy. Or they will appear as if mushrooms they’re not cancer.
There are different kinds of polyps reckoning on their location and their cause.
2. Anal warts (condylomas)
These are noncancerous growths that will occur just outside the anus and within the lower anal canal. An infection forms them with a Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
3. Precancerous Lesions
Most people who have anal cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) early get some signs of the formation of changed cells within the lining of the anus.
4. Malignant Anal Tumors
These are cancerous tumors. The only common type is epithelial cell carcinoma.
Such anal cancer begins within the cells that line the anal margin and most of the anal canal.
Who is at Risk for Anal Cancer?
A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting the disease. The precise explanation for someone’s cancer might not be known, but risk factors can make it more likely for an individual to own cancer.
The risk factors for anal cancer include:
- HPV Infection
- Different sex partners
- Anal sex
- A weakened system due to HIV or other causes
- Old Age
- Frequent Inflammation within the anal area
- Having anal fistulas
Signs and Symptoms of Anal Cancer
Sometimes the person who has anal cancer doesn’t experience symptoms until it matures or spreads. Some of the warning signs and symptoms of anal cancer are-
1. Lumps Near the Anus
A lump or a bump near the anus ensued in less severe diseases. Some of these comprise haemorrhoids, an anal fissure, or an anal wart. But, a lump could also be a symptom of anal cancer.
2. Rectal Bleeding
Rectal bleeding is the red blood coming from the anus, colon, or rectum. When the blood comes from the anus, it would be a sharp red.
3. Change in Bowel Movement
When there is a difference in bowel movements it usually runs to diarrhea or constipation. There may be a loss of control in bowel movements
4. Fluid Leaking from the Anus
There will be a yellow or clear mucus discharge. The discharge itself can say many things encompassing bacterial infections, anal fissures, and bowel restraint. Discharge can be mucus or jelly-like fluid.
5. Itching and Swelling
Itching and/or swelling near the anal region can be a symptom of cancer. Scratching at it may carry out the risk of rupturing it. This can result in an immense amount of discomfort.
An abscess is a swollen, tender bag of pus and it can usually shape in the glands near the anus. When it becomes blocked, it may be due to cancer.
Read Also: How to Cure Piles Permanently
Can Anal Cancer be Prevented?
Some things that will help lower the risk of anal cancer are-
- Get the HPV vaccine before you begin having sex.
- Don’t have sexual perversion.
- Use condoms on every occasion you’ve got various sex (vaginal, anal, or oral).
- Treat HIV.
- Don’t smoke.
Anal Cancer Screening Test
Nowadays, there are not any regular screening tests available for people who have anal cancer. Screening tests are done to test for the disease in those that don’t have symptoms.
Most people who have anal cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) early get some signs of the formation of changed cells within the lining of the anus. These are known as pre-cancer cells that exist as anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
Talk with your doctor about testing for anal cancer if you’re at high risk because you have got any of these:
- Regular anal intercourse
- A history of cervical, vaginal, or vulvae cancer
- A history of the surgical process
- A history of anal warts
How to Diagnose Anal Cancer
Your healthcare provider or doctor will inquire about your health records, warning signs, chance factors, and case records of the infection. He or she is going to do a physical exam. This might include a digital rectal exam (DRE).
You may even have one or more of those tests-
After a diagnosis of anal cancer, you’ll likely prefer other tests.
How to Treat Anal Cancer
Your treatment choices depend upon the sort of anal cancer you’ve got, test results, and also the stage of cancer. If anal cancer is confirmed it is removed with surgery.
The goal of treatment is to cure you, control cancer, or ease problems caused by cancer.
Anal cancer is often treated with-
- Radiation therapy
You must consult with your healthcare providers about your treatment options.
Anal Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation can damage normal cells. This may cause side effects like hair loss, mouth sores, and vomiting.
Depending on where the tumor is and how big it’s, plenty of tissue may have to be removed with surgery. If the anus and rectum are removed, you’ll now not be able to discharge the stool regularly.
Coping with anal cancer
Many people feel worried, depressed, and stressed when addressing cancer. Getting treatment for cancer may be hard on your mind and body.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Your healthcare provider will talk to you either by calling you or meeting. You’ll be warned to call if you experience any of the symptoms written below:
- When you experience new symptoms or the symptoms that are deteriorating your cells.
- Signs of infection like a fever.
- Side effects of medicine or any treatment that may affect the functionality of your body.
How to Lower your Chance for Colon Cancer?
If you face a high chance of getting colon cancer, you must follow the given instructions to lower the risk of colon cancer.
- Get screened for colon cancer. Screening tests are done to test for the disease in those that don’t have symptoms.
- Consume lots of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
- Do regular exercise.
- Check your weight.
- Don’t smoke.
- Limit the use of alcohol.
Anal Cancer is an odd kind of disease. If you experience these warning signs of anal cancer, please ignore these symptoms and immediately visit your doctor.
If you have any questions about anal cancer, please feel free to share your concerns in the comment box.